Get an up to date list of current pests here:
Get an up to date list of current pests here:
The UW Field Crops Pathology Team has started scouting white mold locations for apothecia. Overall, apothecia have not been observed at most locations, due to the fact that soybean canopies have not filled in to threshold. At only one location were we able to find apothecia and this location had met the canopy threshold. Remember, canopy closure is critical in calculating the probability of apothecial presence and subsequent white mold risk.
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77.6% of corn tissue samples in our area are deficient in ZINC – what should you do?
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Call your local agronomist to discuss your next steps!
The wet spring has been frustrating for a lot of farmers to get crops planted. One consolation with the late start is that there are several weed-control benefits of delayed planting. The primary benefit of delayed planting is that many of the early-emerging weeds will have emerged so they can be taken out with tillage or an effective burn-down prior to planting, assuming the weeds have not gotten too large yet.
Control early-emerging weeds with tillage or an effective burndown
A series of research studies have been conducted at the University of Minnesota investigating how delayed planting dates can enhance the control of herbicide-resistant giant ragweed. Giant ragweed is one of the earliest-emerging weeds in Minnesota, with 90% of seedlings emerging before June 1st. Tillage prior to planting effectively controls giant ragweed seedlings, providing up to 90% control of giant ragweed when tillage and planting occur in early June (Goplen et al. 2018).
Tillage prior to crop planting can also improve control of other herbicide-resistant weeds that emerge early in the growing season, including lambsquarters, common ragweed, and kochia, all of which have substantial emergence prior to June 1st.
Figure 1 illustrates the predicted weed emergence of key species in southern Minnesota in 2019 up until the start of June. These predictions are based on actual growing degree day (GDD) accumulation in southern Minnesota and weed emergence models (Werle et al. 2014). As can be seen in Figure 1, by May 31, early-emerging weeds like giant and common ragweed are nearing the end of their emergence period, while lambsquarters is nearly 50% emerged.
Fields that are tilled and planted this week will likely have significantly-reduced ragweed pressure, so weed control should focus more on weeds that emerge later in the season. Weeds that survive tillage can be more difficult to control later on, so scouting should be continued in heavily-infested areas to ensure weeds were in fact controlled with tillage.
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Excessive precipitation and persistently wet conditions have prevented the planting of corn and soybean in some fields and led to ponding and drown-out areas in others. On acres where “prevent plant” is claimed for insurance, the USDA-Risk Management Agency (RMA) requires protection from erosion and control of noxious weeds. Planting a cover crop to these areas can help control weeds and prevent erosion, while enhancing soil structure and preventing “fallow syndrome”.
Fallow syndrome can occur when there is not enough living root material for beneficial soil mycorrhizal fungi to survive. These “good fungi”, also known as AM fungi, facilitate the uptake of nutrients that are less mobile in the soil, such as phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn).
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“We keep getting this question, because as we write this, it is storming yet again in many locations in the Midwest. Rain, rain, and more rain has pushed back timely planting everywhere. Concern is starting to mount about not only yield loss simply from delayed planting, but what increased risk of yield loss due to disease there might be in 2019. As we consider this issue, we will use tar spot of corn and white mold of soybean as just two examples of where this could be an issue.
The Plant Disease Triangle. Remember that the plant disease triangle is the foundation for understanding how plant diseases develop and how to manage them. In order for a plant disease to occur you must have a virulent pathogen, a susceptible host plant, and favorable weather conditions to coincide at the same time. If any one of these three components is missing (or we implement a management strategy that removes or reduces one component) then a plant disease will not occur. When it comes to the host component, it not only matters that the host is generally susceptible but is also at a susceptible growth stage. Consider white mold of soybeans for a minute. All stages of soybean are susceptible to infection by the white mold fungus, but most infections occur through open flowers. Thus, the disease triangle is met when you have (1)white mold fungal spores flying around at the same time that (2)soybean flowers are open (susceptible stage), during, (3) cool and wet weather (favorable environmental condition)completing the triangle (Figure 1). The point here is that if we continue in a cool wet pattern, and delayed planting continues, we may quickly find ourselves with crops at susceptible growth stages when the weather is very conducive to disease.”
For more information click Scouting is Critical in 2019:
Tony Mellenthin, a member/producer of Countryside Cooperative, was recently a guest on MSNBC with Ali Velshi to discuss the China tariffs.
Tony currently serves as the president of the Wisconsin Soybean Association and has served as the president for the Pepin County Farm Management Club. A must see interview!
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This summer we have been making use of Winfield’s new Field Forecasting Tool (FFT) to help producers make better input decisions for this year’s crop. The Field Forecasting Tool takes Nitrogen rate calculators to a whole new level. Not only does it calculate Nitrogen within the model, it calculates Potassium as well. Other inputs the calculator takes into consideration are previous crops, tillage practices, soil type, soil nutrient levels, planting dates, planting depth, plant population, and seed variety. Events that affect the in-season adjustments of the model include growing degree units, growth stage updates, weather patterns, irrigation, fertilizer applications, and tissue samples.
As the crop is growing in the field it is also growing within the model based on the above factors. Growing degree units and weather patterns the tool puts together by itself but the other inputs must be entered by the agronomist so crop scouting is very important. Whenever a fertilizer application is made the model gets updated with that information and calibrated accordingly. While crop scouting we update the growth stage to help keep the model as up to date as possible and pull tissue samples.
Tissue samples are very important to the Field Forecasting Tool and are used to calibrate the system and keep the model accurate so we can use it to make fertilizer application decisions. There is a tab within the tool where we can set up a table with the type of the fertilizer being applied on a range of dates and application rates to determine the most profitable rate and day of application based off of fertilizer cost, application cost, predicted grain price, and change in bushels per acre. Another helpful tab within the model is the water management tab. Within it we can see rainfall and irrigation events that have already taken place and a prediction of rainfall based on the short and extended forecast, and a historical average. It also shows us if the field has experienced any water stress yet this year and predicted water stress so we can make irrigation decisions if there is a pivot on the field.
The Field Forecasting Tool is immensely helpful in assisting agronomists in their data calculations and predictions to help you, the producer, get the most out of your crop and your inputs. This tool really keeps the customer at the forefront, with improved predictions and models that will help you make economic and agronomic decisions beyond this year, but in the years to come.
Photo depicting a 2nd Over the Top application of fertilizer. Note the growth stage at the top (V12) and the predicted stress days.
Photo depicting Potassium levels across the growing season. In red, there are predicted potassium stress days.
Photo tracking urea applications. In dark green are days when applying urea is most profitable. In bright red, days when urea application would do no good. Also note the tool bar on the left side for calculating cost to the producer.
Photo depicting data taken from an in-field tissue sample. On the bottom you can see the growth stage the field was in at the same spot on June 14th, and then the progress in growth on June 25th. You can also see exactly how this area is doing in terms of nutrients listed around the middle circle. If the periodic symbol is green, it’s doing good. Yellow and red symbolize a deficiency.
Finally, here’s a look at the water predictions. It’s divided into soil available water, and outside source water (rain or irrigation) and predicts when the crop will be water deficient.